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Dose-dependent changes in renal (1)H-/ (23)Na MRI after adjuvant radiochemotherapy for gastric cancer

S. Haneder, J. Budjan, S. Schoenberg, S. Konstandin, L. Schad, R. Hofheinz, V. Gramlich, F. Wenz, F. Lohr and J. Boda-Heggemann

Strahlenther Onkol, 191 (4), pp.356-364

Combined radiochemotherapy (RCT) for gastric cancer with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) results in ablative doses to the upper left kidney, while image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) allows kidney sparing despite improved target coverage. Renal function in long-term gastric cancer survivors was evaluated with 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and (23)Na imaging.Five healthy volunteers and 13 patients after radiotherapy were included: 11×IG-IMRT; 1×3D-CRT; 1× "positive control" with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of a metastasis between the spleen/left kidney. Radiation doses were documented for the upper/middle/lower kidney subvolumes. Late toxicity was evaluated based on CTC criteria, questionnaire, and creatinine values. Morphological sequences, DWI images, and (23)Na images were acquired using a (1)H/(23)Na-tuned body-coil before/after intravenous water load (WL). Statistics for [(23)Na] (concentration) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated for upper/middle/lower renal subvolumes. Corticomedullary [(23)Na] gradients and [(23)Na] differences after WL were determined.No major morphological alteration was detected in any patient. Minor scars were observed in the cranial subvolume of the left kidney of the 3D-CRT and the whole kidney of the control SBRT patient. All participants presented a corticomedullary [(23)Na] gradient. After WL, a significant physiological [(23)Na] gradient decrease (p?<?0.001) was observed in all HV and IG-IMRT patients. In the cranial left kidney of the 3D-CRT patient and the positive control SBRT patient, the decrease was nonsignificant (p?=?0.01, p?=?0.02). ADC values were altered nonsignificantly in all renal subvolumes (all participants). Renal subvolumes with doses ??35 Gy showed a reduced change of the [(23)Na] gradient after WL (p?=?0.043). No participants showed clinical renal impairment.Functional parameters of renal (23)Na MRI after gastric IG-IMRT are identical to those of healthy volunteers, in contrast to renal subvolumes after ablative doses in the control and 3D-CRT patient. While kidney doses to the cortex below 20-25 Gy in fractional doses of  ?1 Gy in IG-IMRT (combined with intensified chemotherapy) do not seem to cause significant MRI morphological or functional alterations, doses of >?35 Gy in 1.5-2 Gy fractions clearly result in impairment.

Contact: Dr. Frank Zöllner last modified: 21.09.2020
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