University of Heidelberg
Faculty of Medicine Mannheim
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Efficient 23Na triple-quantum signal imaging on clinical scanners: Cartesian imaging of single and triple-quantum 23Na (CRISTINA)

M. Hoesl, L. Schad and S. Rapacchi

Magn Reson Med, 84 (5), pp.2412-2428

To capture the multiquantum coherence (MQC) Na signal. Different phase-cycling options and sequences are compared in a unified theoretical layout, and a novel sequence is developed. An open source simulation overview is provided with graphical explanations to facilitate MQC understanding and access to techniques. Biases such as B inhomogeneity and stimulated echo signal were simulated for 4 different phase-cycling options previously described. Considerations for efficiency and accuracy lead to the implementation of a 2D Cartesian single and triple quantum imaging of sodium (CRISTINA) sequence employing two 6-step cycles in combination with a multi-echo readout. CRISTINA was compared to simultaneous single-quantum and triple-quantum-filtered MRI of sodium (SISTINA) under strong static magnetic gradient. CRISTINA capabilities were assessed on 8 × 60 mL, 0% to 5% agarose phantom with 50 to 154 mM Na concentration at 7 T. CRISTINA was demonstrated subsequently in vivo in the brain. Simulation of B inhomogeneity showed severe signal dropout, which can lead to erroneous MQC measurement. Stimulated echo signal was highest at the time of triple-quantum coherences signal maximum. However, stimulated echo signal is separated by Fourier Transform as an offset and did not interfere with MQC signals. The multi-echo readout enabled capturing both single-quantum coherences and triple-quantum coherences signal evolution at once. Signal combination of 2 phase-cycles with a corresponding B map was found to recover the signal optimally. Experimental results confirm and complement the simulations. Considerations for efficient MQC measurements, most importantly avoiding B signal loss, led to the design of CRISTINA. CRISTINA captures triple-quantum coherences and single-quantum coherences signal evolution to provide complete sodium signal characterization including fast, slow, MQC amplitudes, and sodium concentration.

Contact: Dr. Frank Zöllner last modified: 12.05.2021
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