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Measurement techniques for magnetic resonance imaging of fast relaxing nuclei

S. Konstandin and A. Nagel

Magn Reson Mater Phy, 27 (1), pp.5-19

In this review article, techniques for sodium ((23)Na) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are presented. These techniques can also be used to image other nuclei with short relaxation times (e.g., (39)K, (35)Cl, (17)O). Twisted projection imaging, density-adapted 3D projection reconstruction, and 3D cones are preferred because of uniform k-space sampling and ultra-short echo times. Sampling density weighted apodization can be applied if intrinsic filtering is desired. This approach leads to an increased signal-to-noise ratio compared to postfiltered acquisition in cases of short readout durations relative to T 2 (*) relaxation time. Different MR approaches for anisotropic resolution are presented, which are important for imaging of thin structures such as myocardium, cartilage, and skin. The third part of this review article describes different methods to put more weighting either on the intracellular or the extracellular sodium signal by means of contrast agents, relaxation-weighted imaging, or multiple-quantum filtering.

Contact: Dr. Frank Zöllner last modified: 18.03.2019
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