Publishers often charge authors or their institutions a fee for OA publications, the so-called Article Processing Charge (APC). There are various ways to have these fees financed:
Publication funds and author discounts at Heidelberg University
Many universities have set up a publication fund, including Heidelberg University Library. These funds can be used for publication in Open Access journals.
Further information on the Open Access Publication Fund can be found at Heidelberg University Library: http://publikationsfonds.uni-hd.de.
Author discounts for Open Access publications
As a member of Germany-wide consortia, the University Library of Heidelberg University has concluded framework agreements with publishers. These allow the author to receive discounts on the APC.
The payment modalities and the verification of affiliation, which is necessary for granting a discount, vary greatly between the publishers.
More detailed information on author discounts and partly free hybrid OA can be found at Heidelberg UB.
The Alliance of German Science Organizations negotiates the nationwide licence agreements with the major scientific publishers with the declared aim of offering participating institutions permanent access to the full texts of all articles from journals of the respective publishers as well as the possibility of Open Access publishing. More detailed information on DEAL can be found on the project website and on the website for scientists, DEAL Operations.
Heidelberg University has also joined the nationwide contract with Wiley and Springer Nature negotiated by the DEAL consortium. Information for members of Heidelberg University on publishing in the journals of the publishers Wileys and Springer Nature can be found here:
Note for members of the faculty: Authors who have an employment contract with the faculty or enrolled doctoral candidates/students can use the following offers from the publishers Wiley and Springer Nature:
- Until further notice, you can publish Open Access in subscription journals with hybrid Open Access option of the publisher Wiley without additional costs (so-called "Wiley Online Open"). A discount of 20% is granted on publication fees in pure Open Access journals ("Gold Open Access"), the publication costs are invoiced to the authors via the University Library. Further information can be found at Publishing in journals of Wiley.
- Springer Nature
- What are the requirements of funding agencies?
Different funding agencies for research funding and research organisations such as the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Helmholtz Association, Max Planck Society and Leibniz Association are active in the field of OA and also take this into account in their funding programmes. While in Germany, OA publication is only recommended, institutions abroad make it mandatory to what extent publications that have been produced within the framework of funding must be published OA.
General information on the requirements of research funding organisations with regard to OA is available in the database SHERPA/JULIET. For details, please refer to the funding guidelines of the individual institutions.
More information on funding at www.publisso.de and www.open-access.net
- Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)
The Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) has developed an Open Access strategy for Germany. The Open Access clause calls for publications from BMBF-funded projects either to be published directly in Open Access (Gold) or to be placed in a suitable repository after twelve months at the latest (Green).
The BMBF supports Open Access in that costs incurred for publication in an Open Access journal within the framework of project funding can be applied for with the project funds.
Publications from completed BMBF projects are also funded from a post-grant fund. One of the prerequisites is that the funding period ended no more than three years ago (date of application). Further information at www.bmbf.de
- Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (DFG, German Research Foundation) called for Open Access in its guidelines as early as 2006. Unlike other research funding organisations, the DFG does not tie grants to an OA obligation. However, researchers are encouraged to make project-related publications available in open access.
With funding programmes such as "Electronic Publications", "Scientific Journals" or "Open Access Transformation Agreements", the DFG nevertheless promotes OA indirectly via service and information institutions, for example by creating local publication funds for OA publications.
In the current DFG funding programme "Infrastructure for Electronic Publications and Digital Scientific Communication", the DFG has made OA publications mandatory for the first time. Further information at www.dfg.de
- European Commission - Horizon 2020
For projects funded under the European Framework Programme for Research and Innovation - Horizon 2020 - the publication of scientific results in Open Access is mandatory. After completion of the peer review process, the publications must be made available free of charge in such a way that they can at least be freely read online, downloaded and printed. In addition, measures are to be taken to further improve accessibility. This includes providing opportunities for copying, distributing, searching, linking, crawling and mining.
The obligation initially applies only to peer-reviewed publications in scientific journals. For all other publications (e.g. monographs ect.), the rules are not binding, although OA publication is recommended. For more information, see Guidelines to the Rules on Open Access to Scientific Publications and Open Access to Research Data in Horizon 2020” und www.publisso.de
- cOAliton S and Plan S
The cOAlition S, is an alliance of currently 26 international funding organisations (including the WHO, the European Commission, the Wellcome Trust, the Medical Research Council (UKRI) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation). With the Plan S strategy, the members intend to make all quality-assessed (peer-reviewed) publications resulting from their grants freely available from January 2021 without delay (i.e. without embargo period) and with a „Creative Commons Attribution CC BY“-Lizenz (or an equivalent free licence) either on high-quality OA platforms, in OA journals or in open repositories that meet the required conditions.
Immediate OA publication is possible in pure OA journals; furthermore, also in hybrid journals, provided they have credible transformation plans. The cOAlition S provides a Journal Checker Tool that allows quick orientation as to which journals are Plan S-compatible. Further information at www.coalition-s.org
- World Health Organization (WHO)
WHO's open access policy aims to ensure that the published results of its activities are freely accessible and reusable by the public as an essential part of its mission. It is a member of cOAlition S and its open access policy is in line with the principles of Plan S .
From 1 January 2021, all articles and chapters authored by WHO staff or individuals, or originating in institutions and funded by WHO, submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals must be published in an open access journal or on an open access platform. Costs for publications in hybrid journals are now only covered in exceptional cases. For more information, see WHO Policy on Open Access.
Publications in the GMS publications of the Association of the Scientific Medical Society (AWMF)
The portal German Medical Science is the interdisciplinary portal of the Association of the Scientific Medical Society (AWMF). Founded with the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) and now operated in cooperation with the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) and ZB MED - Information Centre for Life Sciences, it offers free access to high-ranking and quality-checked medical articles. The project is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
GMS German Medical Science - an Interdisciplinary Journal is an interdisciplinary e-journal of the AWMF for the entire field of medicine, aimed at all those who work on and with scientific publications. Original and review articles from all medical disciplines are published. A prerequisite for publication under the umbrella of the German Medical Science portal is compliance with the goals of the Open Access movement and the licensing conditions of the German Medical Science portal. In order to enable Open Access for publications from research and science with GMS, a business model has been developed in which the costs - including peer review, editing, online hosting and archiving - are partly covered by publication fees. The fees are generally borne by the publishing societies and depend on the number of articles to be published. See also Autors Rigths, Journal Policy und Help & FAQ
Heidelberg University Publishing
Heidelberg University Publishing (heiUP) is an Open Access publisher for quality-assured scientific publications. The primary form of publication is online publication in various digital formats in open access. In addition to the freely accessible digital formats, a printed edition is offered (print-on-demand), which can be obtained regularly from bookshops. For the publication of manuscripts accepted by the publisher, the author or editor makes a contribution to the production costs. Further information at heiUP
Even if your publication has already been published for a fee, you can publish it a second time under certain conditions and thus make it freely accessible online on a publication server (repository) or an institute website, for example on heiDOK, the Open Access repository of Heidelberg University.
There are special requirements for the second publication of publications that contain parts published elsewhere. The willingness of publishers to agree to a second publication varies. The contract concluded at the time of the first publication is decisive. Conditions and deadlines can be found in the contract or researched under SHERPA/RoMEO-Liste. The database collects information on the possibilities of additional provision of scientific papers already published or yet to be published by a publisher.
You can find a lot of important information on second publication rights/Right of self-archiving at:
The question of the quality of scientific publications is of central importance for the scientific community. Authors have a great interest in publishing their work in renowned journals, as this plays an important role in their scientific career. There are high-quality and low-quality journals. This applies to conventional journals as well as to OA journals.
The large number of new journals coming onto the market makes it increasingly difficult to keep track of relevant literature. Rankings can help to determine relevant journals in a given subject area.
Mostly, rankings are based on citation analyses that determine the impact factor. The more frequently a journal is cited, the higher its impact in the scientific community. Analogous to the studies on citation frequency, some OA journals already have a higher impact factor than comparable subscription journals in many disciplines.
To give researchers an overview of relevant OA journals, the National OA Contact Point OA2020-DE has compiled a searchable list of more than 600 frequently cited OA journals from almost all scientific disciplines.
Further journal ranking databases are available for selection here.
Decision-making aids for the selection of reputable OA journals
Unfortunately, there are also "black sheep" among the editors or publishers of OA journals, known as predatory publishers. These are only interested in publication fees, without adhering to the usual standards of good scientific practice.
The following criteria can help you to assess the seriousness of a journal:
Has the journal actually been evaluated in the "Journal Citation Reports" and thus has an "official" Journal Impact Factor (JIF)? It should also be noted in this context that journals can only receive a "Journal Impact Factor" in the third year after publication. However, dubious journals sometimes invent measures that are similar to the Journal Impact Factor or calculate it themselves on the basis of a different set of data.
- Is the journal's web presence coherent or is it copied verbatim from other sites?
- Is the journal actually evaluated by the databases mentioned?
- Do the contractual agreements make a serious impression? In OA journals, the authors retain their right of use. In addition, publication fees are only payable after a publication has been accepted and the amount is clearly stated on the website. Contradictory information indicates inconsistencies.
- Advice should be sought from peers or academic supervisors.
Selection Open Access Journal
Before submitting your research paper, check the reputation of the OA journal carefully. If you are not yet familiar with the journal or the publisher, the following websites offer information:
You can find more information on this topic at www.publisso.de and www.open-access.net.
To be able to reliably and permanently find, identify and cite electronically published data of any kind, you need a persistent identifier. A Persistent Identifier is a unique label for a specific digital object and always remains the same, even if the name or location of a publication changes.
ORCID is an independent, globally operating, non-profit initiative. An ORCID ID is used to uniquely identify scientific authors. With an ORCID ID, your research activities and publications are uniquely assigned to you, making them more visible and easier to find.
DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier and is a permanent and unique identifier for digital objects. It is mainly used for articles and contributions in scientific publications such as journals.
Bibliographic information on publications can be conveniently imported into an Endnote project via the DOI, for example, and entered into the author's own ORCID profile.
Copyrights and rights of use
As authors, authors usually own all rights to their works. Through a publishing agreement or comparable forms of rights transfer, they assign so-called exploitation rights or rights of use to publishers.
You can find a lot of important information on copyright and rights of use in Germany at:
Creative Commons licences
Creative Commons is a non-profit organisation that provides ready-made licence agreements. The basic idea is non-profit. With the ready-made CC licences, it wants to help authors to make their works available for use by others quickly and easily and at the same time to use other works under this licence. There are a total of six different CC licences.
You can find a lot of important information on Creative Commons licences at:
Repositories offer standardised processes and a sustainable structure to collect and publish digital objects. The objects are clearly described by supplementary information (metadata); their storage location is unambiguous and citable. Objects and data can be accessed by third parties via technical interfaces and can be further shared and reused.
Basically, a distinction is made between institutional and subject-specific repositories. While institutional repositories are located at a single institution and cover a broad spectrum of disciplines, subject-specific repositories focus on a single discipline and include publications by authors from different institutions. Which type of repository you choose depends on your personal preferences and the subject-specific circumstances. In general, it is possible to deposit one's publications in several repositories, as long as the corresponding rights of use are available. Further information on repositories can be found at which is the most suitable repository for your publication?
heiDOK the Heidelberg Document Server is the Open Access platform of Heidelberg University. It offers members of the university the opportunity to publish their research results in Open Access.
Repository search options
Directory of Open Access Repositories this tool enables a worldwide search for academic open access repositories.
Registry of Open Access Repositories ROAR is, along with OpenDOAR, the largest directory for OA repositories. Its special feature is the manual addition of missing repositories.
OAN Network of Open Access Repositories
The Open Access Network aims to strengthen the networking of repositories in order to make the German research contribution more visible nationally and internationally. Initiated by the German Initiative for Network Information e.V. (DINI), the German Research Foundation (DFG) is funding the project. Initially, the basis will be the DINI certified document and publication servers that have joined together in a virtual network.
DINI List German Repositories
A list of repositories with identification of those with DINI certification.
An interdisciplinary repository that records scientific publications and research data and assigns DOIs.
Registry of Research Data Repositories a directory for repositories that make scientific research data freely available. The aim of the platform is to provide orientation in the confusing landscape of research data repositories.
More Information at https://open-access.net/en/information-on-open-access/repositories
BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)
A search engine for scientific documents. It is operated by Bielefeld University Library and provides access to the content and metadata of scientific document servers that are made available free of charge in open access.
Search engine of the University of Michigan and the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) to search the metadata of various document servers. The catalogue includes over 50 million records of digital sources from more than 2,000 participants and is one of the most important search engines for open access content.
OpenAIRE stands for "Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe", is strongly supported by the European Commission and aims to contribute to better discoverability and re-use of scientific publications and research data with its portal. OpenAIRE supports the implementation of Open Access and links research information such as publications, datasets, project information, organisations and author information in its search portal.
heiOPENsearch enables comprehensive searches within the publications and digitised historical collections made available by Heidelberg University Library on its own servers in open access. The collections and "pools" can be searched in heiUP, heiBOOKs, heiJOURNALS, heiDOK. Others are in the pipeline (et.al. heiDATA)
Open Access Policy Heidelberg University
In February 2013, the university adopted an Open Access Policy expressing its explicit support for this publication model. The university library has the task of coordinating the university's OA activities and supporting them with suitable offers.
Dr. Maria Effinger is Open Access Officer at the Heidelberg University Library
Open Access on publication platforms of Heidelberg University Library
- heiUP – Heidelberg University Publishing is the university publishing house of Heidelberg University. The primary form of publication is online publication in various digital formats in open access. In addition to the freely accessible digital formats, a printed edition is offered (print-on-demand), which can be obtained regularly from bookshops.
- heiDOK is the Open Access platform of Heidelberg University. It offers members of the university the opportunity to publish their research results in Open Access. Free access to around 16,000 scientific publications in accordance with the principles of Open Access publishing.
- heiBOOKS The Open Access platform heiBOOKS offers scientists and scholars at Heidelberg University a timely and free publication option for scientific e-books. The platform supports both first publications ("golden path") and second publications ("green path"). The open source software OMP (Open Monograph Press) is used.
- heiJOURNALS – Heidelberger OJS-Journals Heidelberg University Library offers researchers at Heidelberg University the opportunity to publish e-journals in Open Access free of charge. The university library provides the established Open Journal Systems (OJS) software for this purpose.
- heiDATA is an institutional research data repository for archiving and publishing research data in cooperation with the University Computing Centre.
- heiOPENsearch enables comprehensive research within the publications and digitised historical collections made available by Heidelberg University Library on its own servers in open access.
- heiRIS – The modular research infrastructure of Heidelberg University Library
- Competence Centre for Research Data In accordance with the university's Research Data Policy the Competence Centre for Research Data offers researchers at Heidelberg University central services for archiving and publishing their research data. The Competence Centre is a joint facility of the university’s Computing Centre and the University Library.
For more information on the topic of Open Access, please visit:
- open-access.net The platform provides comprehensive information on the topic of Open Access and offers practical implementation assistance. It was set up as part of a DFG project by the Free University of Berlin and the universities of Göttingen, Konstanz and Bielefeld.
- Publisso is the ZB MED an open access publishing platform for life sciences
- Schwerpunktinitiative "Digitale Information" Open Access information of a joint initiative of the Alliance of Science Organisations to improve the supply of information in research and teaching.
- DFG Open Access Information on Open Access on the website of the "Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)"
- BMBF Open Access Information page of the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
- Leibniz Gemeinschaft Open Access Information on Open Access from the Leibniz Gemeinschaft